Leptospirosis Homeopathic prophylaxis epidemic

Introducton

Leptospirosis is a serious disease caused by infection with pathogenic strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospira spp. In recent years, Leptospirosis has emerged as one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwideand a severe health problem in developing countries and the tropics.According to antigenic determinants, Leptospira spirochetes are classified into 25 serogroups and over 250 serovars that affect almost all mammals.

Human infection usually occurs when contact with the urine of domestic and wild animals (mainly rodents, dogs, pigs and horses) which are natural bacteria reservoirs secreting spirochetes in the urine, the animal vectors often remain symptom free. Infection occurs through the mucosa or open skin lesions and the contact urine contaminated water. Under normal conditions, Leptospirosis is an occupational disease affecting individuals living in rural regions, mainly farmers involved in agriculture or animal breeding which are considered the main at-risk groups. However, an increasing number of Leptospirosis infections in urban areas and among adventure travellers practising water-sports has being reported in recent years.

Leptospirosis epidemics are a greater concern in developing countries where poor sanitary conditions, health structures, medical awareness and misdiagnosis have contributed to keep Leptospirosis as a major, but poorly recognised, threat. In tropical countries, the incidence of Leptospirosis is closely related to rainfall and flooding seasons when ecological conditions are favourable for the transmission of zoonotic diseases.When infected urine contaminates water reservoirs, the bacteria can survive for long periods in water at neutral pH.

 

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